What is ERC-6551: the Future of NFTs

Crypto Insiders: Exclusive Interview with Benny Giang From Dapper Labs


The digital domain has experienced an upheaval with the rise of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), fundamentally redefining digital asset ownership. Yet, as with all burgeoning technologies, NFTs encounter challenges, particularly in the realm of scalability. In a recent conversation with Benny Giang , one of the proponent behind the innovative Ethereum Improvement Proposal ERC-6551, we delved into the transformative potential of Token Bound Accounts. ERC-6551 sets a groundbreaking standard that aims not only to improve the usability of NFTs, but also to transform them from static collectibles into dynamic, autonomous, and interactive entities, promising a quantum leap in the functionality and engagement within the NFT ecosystem.

The Birth of ERC-6551: Token Bound Accounts

One of Benny’s most significant contributions to the NFT landscape is the creation of ERC-6551, an innovative standard that introduces Token Bound Accounts. The key difference between ERC-721 (the standard for traditional NFTs) and ERC-6551 lies in the concept of Token Bound Accounts. While ERC-721 represents static, individual tokens, ERC-6551 empowers each NFT with its own smart contract account, creating a bound relationship between the NFT and the account.

Token Bound Accounts, also known as Token Bound NFTs, bestow three transformative properties to NFTs:

Asset Ownership: ERC-6551 NFTs can hold a wide range of assets, including cryptocurrencies like ETH and USDC, as well as other NFTs from various standards like ERC-20, ERC-721, and ERC-1155.

Social Identity: With Token Bound Accounts, NFTs gain social significance as they become more than just profile pictures or collectibles. Users can now associate transaction histories and even personalities with their NFTs, effectively embodying their digital assets.

Action Potential: The integration of NFTs with AI models or LLMs (Language Models) enables them to autonomously perform on-chain actions. For instance, an ERC-6551 NFT can be instructed to collect specific NFTs, execute trades, and much more.

The Five Key Differences of ERC-6551

ERC-6551 stands out from other NFT standards in several significant ways, making it a game-changer for the NFT ecosystem:

Universality: ERC-6551 is compatible with every existing and future NFT, whether from CryptoKitties, Azuki, Board Ape, or any other EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) compatible blockchain.

Flexibility: It supports any type of asset, allowing NFTs to hold not only cryptocurrencies but also tokens from various standards, making it a versatile standard for asset ownership.

No Wrapping Contract: Unlike many other protocols, ERC-6551 does not require wrapping NFTs or additional steps for asset ownership, making it more seamless and user-friendly.

Interoperability: ERC-6551 is designed to work effortlessly with existing Ethereum wallet infrastructure, such as WalletConnect, enabling smooth interactions with NFTs across different platforms and DApps.

Decentralization: Each ERC-6551 NFT has its own independent smart contract account, ensuring complete decentralization and security of assets within the NFT.

Reimagining NFTs with ERC-6551

The potential impact of ERC-6551 on the NFT ecosystem is nothing short of transformative. The introduction of Networked Playable Characters (NPCs) brings a whole new dimension to NFTs, elevating them from static assets with metadata to dynamic entities capable of autonomous actions and interactions.

Traditionally, NFTs have been viewed as collectibles or digital art pieces, often valued for their rarity and aesthetics. However, with ERC-6551, the paradigm shifts towards a more functional and interactive approach. The idea of NPCs takes inspiration from the gaming world, where Non-Player Characters (NPCs) play critical roles in creating immersive experiences for players.

In the context of NFTs, NPCs are programmable entities linked to specific tokens. These NPCs can be endowed with distinct personalities, traits, and behaviors, making them unique and valuable assets in their own right. The implementation of NPCs enables NFT owners to go beyond passive ownership and infuse their digital assets with life, transforming them into active participants in various scenarios.

Through extensions, NFT owners gain the power to program their digital objects, defining rules and actions that NPCs can perform autonomously. This opens up a world of possibilities where NFTs can serve diverse purposes beyond being collectibles. For example, an NFT representing a virtual pet could be programmed to interact with its environment, respond to user commands, and even engage in virtual pet battles with other NPCs.

One of the most exciting applications of ERC-6551 lies in the metaverse. Metaverses are virtual worlds that allow users to interact with each other and digital objects in real-time. However, populating these metaverses with engaging content has been a challenge. With the advent of NPCs, NFT owners can deploy their digital assets as interactive characters within these metaverses. These NPCs can add life and activity to otherwise empty virtual landscapes, creating a more vibrant and immersive experience for users.

Imagine exploring a metaverse and stumbling upon an NFT-based restaurant where NPCs representing chefs, waiters, and customers interact, providing a truly immersive and lifelike experience. Such scenarios not only enrich the user experience but also create opportunities for new forms of entertainment, social interactions, and even economic activities within the metaverse.

Moreover, the programmability of NFTs allows for the creation of value-added services. NFTs can be programmed to perform specific tasks or provide services, opening up new business models and revenue streams. For instance, an NFT representing a concert ticket could come with an NPC that offers exclusive backstage access or interacts with the ticket holder during the event, enhancing the overall concert experience.

ERC-6551’s introduction of NPCs and extensions also encourages collaboration among developers, artists, and creators. By leveraging the power of smart contracts, they can pool their expertise to design innovative and interactive NFT experiences that transcend the limitations of traditional collectibles.


The inception of Token Bound Accounts and ERC-6551 signifies a pivotal moment in the evolution of the NFT landscape. By addressing key scalability issues and offering a platform for dynamic and interactive functionalities, this revolutionary standard heralds a new age of digital ownership and engagement. As we witness the continuous growth of the NFT ecosystem, ERC-6551, championed by Benny Giang, promises to unlock myriad opportunities for artists, creators, and users, transforming NFTs into more than just static digital assets. As NFTs steadily permeate our digital existence, this innovative technology, with its promise of autonomous and interactive digital entities, paints an increasingly vibrant future for the realm of NFTs.

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